The biblical notion of "an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth"* illustrates both the use and misuse of religion. Although the concept calls for restraint, it has been interpreted to mandate revenge.
In order to determine its authentic meaning, the Bible must be studied against the backdrop of time and culture.
Solidarity is the philosophical basis of all Scripture in the traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Solidarity is the notion of collective identity; that we are all connected in our actions, blessings, and responsibilities.
The extent of Solidarity pertains to both the positive and negative aspects of life. The injunction "an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth" imposed limits on collective punishment. For example, the life of an individual could not be avenged by the lives of an entire family or tribe. Thus, far from being a mandate for revenge, this it was a demonstration of legal grace while also recognizing the legitimate demands of justice.
Jesus Christ extended even further the rejection of mandated revenge. In Matthew 5 we read:
 Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:
 But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.
 And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also.
 And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.
 Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.
 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.
 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;
 That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.
 For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same?
 And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so?
 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.
While Jesus invites us to seek perfection in our personal relation, is it possible to practice radical goodness in our international relationships, nation to nation?
Nations are led my human beings who conceivably reflect the aspirations of their people.
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AS PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Iran is a current hotspot of conflict. Threats pass back and forth between Israel and its surrogates in the West and, Iran and its surrogates in the East. There is a lot of noise, but no talking.
Leaders must be mature enough to conduct themselves above heated rhetoric. We expect this in our person relationships, then why not in our international relations?
COOPERATION VS. COMPETITION
If there is no need for competition, then there is no need for war.
Why compete over ideologies or resources when there is plenty for all?
Start talking from the premise there is plenty of room in the world for differences.
All-out war is the last resort of civilized people. Even our ancient predecessors limited their conduct. Can we do less?
* "Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe" (Exodus 21:24, 25).
"Breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth: as he hath caused a blemish in a man, so shall it be done to him [again]" (Leviticus 24:20).
"And thine eye shall not pity; [but] life [shall go] for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot" (Deuteronomy 19:21).